Practical Examination of ADC

Practical Examination of ADC is the third and final stage of ADC assessment process. The candidates get a chance to demonstrate that they are competent to practice safely as a dentist in Australia. Practical Examination assesses candidates across the range of the entry level competencies of the newly qualified dentist.

We, at the Academy of Dental Knowledge provide complete training for the practical examination.  For detail mail us to support@dentalknowledge.in

Written Examination of ADC

The written examination of ADC for dentist is a computer based examination.  It evaluates candidate’s knowledge of the science and practice of dentistry, and assesses application of clinical judgement and reasoning skills relevant to dental practice in Australia.

The written examination is conducted over 2 days by Pearson VUE.  It consists of four papers, each containing 80 scenario based and single answer multiple choice questions.  The examination is held in multiple locations in Australia and overseas.

For preparation of written examination we are here to help you.  Write us at support@ dentalknowledge.in

Initial assessment

If you're reading this article, it is sure that you are a dentist with a dental degree of non-Australian origin and you are willing to register yourself in the Dental Board of Australia to practice dentistry in Australia.  To register yourself in the dental Board of Australia, the first step of the three steps is the initial assessment of your documents by Australian Dental Council.

In the initial assessment process the following documents will be assessed by ADC:

  1. Your professional qualification (bachelor degree)
  2. Your work experience
  3. Details of your dental registration or all registrations if you had/have registration in various countries.
  4. Good standing stated by registering authority

You are eligible for initial assessment by Australian Dental Council, if you have a dental degree of your own country or any country which is recognized by the Australian Dental Council.

As a dentist, you can get assessed by ADC at any time of year by submitting an Initial assessment of professional qualification application form.

Once the application form and supporting documents have been received, you will be assigned an ADC candidate reference number. This number should always be used when you contact the ADC.

For initial assessment, we are here to help you.  Write us at

support@dentalknowledge.in

How Healthy Teeth Help You to Stay Healthy

 

How Healthy Teeth Help You to Stay Healthy

By Susan Cruise

The relationship of the teeth to general health and efficiency was appreciated in a general way long before vitamins or focal infections had been heard of. Toothaches used to be as inevitable as colds; and slave buyers and horse traders inspected the teeth of their prospective purchases before buying. Continue reading "How Healthy Teeth Help You to Stay Healthy"

Fluoride Therapy

Fluoride therapy is widely used to prevent dental caries. Evidence have shown that a constantly maintained low level of fluoride in oral environment is most effective in caries prevention against the earlier popular belief of being it most beneficial against caries during pre-eruptive forming enamel.

Dietary Fluoride supplementation Schedule

American academy of Paediatric Dentistry & American Dental Associations Council on Dental Therapeutics recommend the following regimen for fluoride supplement for an individual having insufficient daily fluoride intake:

Age

Less than 0.3 ppm F 0.3-0.6 ppm F More than 0.6 ppm F

Birth- 6 mos

0

0

0

6 months-3 yrs.

0.25 mg

0

0

3 yrs.-6 yrs.

0.5 mg

0.25 mg

0

6 yrs. to at least 16 yrs. 1.0 mg 0.5 mg

0

Evaluate fluoride exposer before prescribing fluoride therapy. Document the patient’s fluoride exposer in the record and review at periodic visits. Have a water analysis done prior to issuing supplemental fluoride.

Point of use, water conditioning (filtration system significantly reduce fluoride content. Activated carbon filters reduce fluoride concentration by 81%. Bottled water can have variable fluoride concentrations.

Preschool children require supervision during tooth brushing. No more than a pea size amount of tooth paste should be used, avoid swallowing of the pastes & rinse after brushing.

Fluoride mouth rinses containing 0.05% or 0.2% should not be used by children under the age of six years or those who are unable to adequately expectorate.

Supervise professionally applied topical fluoride treatments. Use 5-10 ml of fluoride gel in well fitting brays, ham the patient lean forward in the dental chair, admonish not to swallow, and use a saliva ejector positioned between trays.

Fluoride Toxicity:

Chronic Toxicity (results in fluorosis)

Dean’s Classification 0-4 scale

  • 0-none
  • 1-very mild
  • 2-mild
  • 3-moderate
  • 4-severe
  • 59% of population at optimal population level will exhibit no flourosis
  • Very mild 7.4 % of population at optimal dose.
  • (mild) greater than 25%, less than 50% of surface with opaque defect (greater than 1.2 ppm)
  • (Moderate) brown stains present (greater than 2 ppm).
  • (Severe) pitting and attrition problems (greater them 2-3 ppm)

Flourosis occurs during maturation process. For incisors, age 2-3 yrs is the critical period.

Acute Toxicity

CLD (certain lethal dose 32-64 mg/kg body wt in one source,71-140 mf/kg in another source. A death has been reported at 17 mg/kg.

PTD (Probable Toxic Dose) 5mg/kg i.e.50 mg for a 10 kg 2 yrs old.

STD (Safely Tolerated Dose) 8-16 mg/kg

Toxicity at low doses is due to gastric irritation.

Hypocalcaemia and hyperkalemia at high doses leads to cardiovascular collapse and death.

Treatment of Overdose

  • Less than 5 mg/kg-oral calcium (milk) and observe
  • More than 5 mg but less than 15 mg/kg- induce vomiting, oral calcium (milk, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, admit to hospital
  • More than 15 mg/kg- admit to hospital immediately, induce vomiting, monitor cardiac function, 10% calcium gluconate solution IV and monitor electrolytes.

COMMON SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE FLUORIDE TOXICITY

LOW DOSES

  1. Nausea
  2. Vomiting
  3. Hyper salivation
  4. Abdominal pain
  5. Diarrhoea

HIGH DOSES

3-C’s

  1. Convulsions
  2. Cardiac arrhythemia
  3. Comatose
  • Patients become hypocalcaemic due to Ca binding with fluoride.

Calculating mg Fluoride in Compound

Ist step: Find % F in compound

Name Molecular weight ratio
APF

1

NaF

1/2.2 or 1/2

SnF2

1/4.1 or 1/4

MFP-sodium Mono fluoro Phosphate

1/7.6 or 1/8

Multiply % compound by molecular weight ratio= % F

 

2nd Step: Express % Fluoride in compound in mg F/ml

By definition % solution is gram/100 ml.

Gram/100 ml=1000mg/100 ml=10 mg/ml

Multiply step 1 by 10 = mgF/ml

3rd Step: Multiply step 2 by ml ingested to get mg F ingested

  •  23% APF x 1 = 1.23% F x 10 = 12.3 mg F / ml
  • 2% NaF x 1/2 = 0.1 x10 = 1 mg F / ml
  • 2% NaF x 1/2 = 1 x 10 =10 mg F / ml
  • 4 % SnF2 x ¼ = 0.1 x 10 mg = 1 mg F / ml
  • 10% SnF2 x 1/4 = 2.5% x 10 =25 mg F / ml

Compare with CLD and STD for weight of individual

 WATER FLUORIDATION

Decrease in caries activity

  • Primary-40%
  • Secondary- 50-60%

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF FLUORIDE

  • Decreases enamel solubility.
  • Improves enamel crystalinity.
  • Promotes re mineralisation.
  • Decreases free surface energy of bacteria so it cannot stick on tooth.
  • Bactericidal or bacteriostatic
  • Causes developing crystal to get bigger and less soluble

FLUORIDE PROTOCOL

  • Home use in trays, topical
  • H2O supply
  • Systemic also topical when chewing tablets
  • High frequency low dose is effective

SEALANTS:

  • Efficacy due to physical obstruction of pit & fissures.
  • May be used over sites with incipient and active caries.
  • Effective for primary teeth.
  • Fluoride releasing sealants.
  • Sealant failures occur during first year, check closely and repair.
  • Dentin bonding agent improves sealant bond wet environment.
  • Timing: Increase failure (54%) with occlusal gingival tags.

Fluoride mouth rinses

Reduce caries by 20-50 %. Weekly 0.2% NaF and daily 0.05% NaF rinses were considered to be ideal public health measure.

Daily rinses

  • 0.02% acidulated phosphated fluoride.
  • NaF (100 ppm).
  • Partly acidulated solution of 0.04% NaF (200 ppm).

Weekly or fortnightly rinses

  • 0.2% NaF (1000 ppm).

Indications :

  • Patients who are undergoing orthodontics treatment.
  • Post-irradiation xerostomia Sufferers.
  • Children unable to perform adequate tooth brushing.

Contraindications:

  • Non recommended for preschool aged children.

Fluoride varnishes:

  • Reduction in caries rate-30 %

Indications:

  • Hypersensitive areas.
  • Newly erupted tooth.
  • Arresting early caries.

Duraphat

  • is an alcoholic solution of natural varnishes.
  • contains 50 mg NaF/ml (2.5%=25000 ppm F)

Fluor Protector

  • A silane fluoride varnish in a poly polyurathane lacquer.
  • Contains lower concentration of fluoride 0.8%.

With such highly concentrated fluoride products, great care must be taken to avoid overuse & ingestion. They should not be used before the eruption of permanent incisors.

Prophylaxis:

  • before fluoride application is not usually needed.
  • may acts as reservoir of fluoride.

Concentrated fluoride gels and solutions:

APF (Acidulated Phosphate Fluorides – 1.23 % F ie 12,300 ppm F

  • AFP gels are mainly used for the prevention of caries development.
  • Used for professional application.
  • Has a mixture of NaF, HF and orthophosphate acid.
  • Should be limited for professional use.
  • Should not be dispensed for home use.
  • Incorporation of a water soluble polymer i.e. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose into APF produces a viscous solution that improves the ease of application using custom made trays.
  • Thixotropic gels in tray flow under pressure, so facilitating the penetration of the gel between teeth.

Neutral NaF 2.2%

  • Preferred in cases of erosion, exposed dentin ‘Calais dentin Or where very porous enamel exist.
  • Chemically very Stable, has an acceptable taste, nonirritating to the gingival docs not discolors teeth, composite or porcelain restorations as APF or stannous fluoride may.

Stannous fluoride Sn F2

  • 10%.Sn F2 is used to target local at risk surfaces of teeth such as deep fissures & pits.
  • Rapid penetration of tin and fluoride into enamel and the formation of a highly insoluble tin-fluorophosphates complex coating on the enamel are the main mechanisms of its action.
  • Often produces discoloration of teeth and staining on margins of restorations-particularly in hypocalcified areas.
  • 0.4% SF2 get in a methylcellulose and glycerin base has proved effective in arresting root caries. It has been incorporated into a synthetic Saliva solution to reduce caries in post-irradiation cancer patient.

Systemic fluorides

  • Fluoride supplement (tablets & drops have limited application as a public health measure but may be of benefit to individuals with a high caries brisk.
  • Beneficial in non-fluoridated communities. Benefit is small.
  • Overzealous use –Fluorosis.
  • Fluoride tablets should be chewed rather than swallowed-both topical & systemic benefit.
  • In the Period between 2-3 years maxillary incisor teeth are most susceptible to fluorosis.

Daily F supplement doses schedule for persons concerned at particularly high caries risk

 

Age interval

F level in water <0.3 mg/L

F level in water 0.3-0.5 mg/L

6 monthts-4 yrs.

0.25 mg

0

4-8 yrs.

0.5 mg

0.25 mg

> 8 yrs.

1.0 mg

0.5 mg

*All supplement should be formulated as lozenges,

*A person whose daily dose is 0.5 mg should consume 0.25 mg tablet two times daily.

Take the Mock Test 15: Fluoride Therapy by clicking HERE.

 

IDA Jamshedpur Conducts Dental Camp and Oral Health Awareness Programm

Jamshedpur, 29 April 2018

Amidst the fun filled Jam-street, Indian Dental Association, Jamshedpur Branch took the opportunity to impart crucial knowledge amongst the people of Jamshedpur about oral hygiene and showed how bad oral health and tobacco habits lead to other serious health disorders.

jam-street 1

Dentists of IDA, Jamshedpur branch came up with a healthy cause and educated the people about the proper way to prevent the development of dental problems such as tooth decay, gum diseases and other oral health complications. They spread awareness about the increasing incidence of oral cancer in India and emphasized the importance of regular oral and dental check-up as a better step towards good health.

Risk of oral cancer increases with age. Oral cancers most often occur in people over the age of 40 years and around 80% of oral cancers are directly attributable to the tobacco and related products (smoking, Gutaka, or Pan Masala).

Jam-street 2

The relationship of tooth decay (dental caries) & pyorrhea (periodontitis) to valvular heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, vision, brain and skin were explained to the public. It was highly advised to get treatment of dental decay and periodontitis in its early stage to prevent the development of other systemic diseases. 167 persons among 516 attendees were found to be suffering from chronic periodontitis, tooth decay, remaining root stumps, sever attrition, temporomandibular joint disorder and malocclusion. These people were advised to get the proper treatment to make their oral cavity free from dental diseases and improvement in the quality of life.

Doctors who immensely contributed in this dental camp cum awareness program were Dr. Ajai Mohan Singh, Dr. Eric Liu, Dr. Warren Liu, Dr. Richa Angik,  Dr. Saba, Dr. Suman Lodha, Dr. Sikander Prasad, Dr. Aron,  Dr. Ankita, Dr. Aditya, Dr. Shweta Jaiswal, Dr. Pankaj, Dr. Aniket, Dr. Aditya and Dr. Soni.

 

Article written by Dr Sabyasachi Chatterjee

Dr. Sabyasachi