Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID–19)

Infection Control News

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).

What is this Covid-19 being referred to everywhere?

Covid-19 is the disease caused by a “novel coronavirus” which originated in Wuhan, China.

Corona viruses are zoonotic, means, they are transmitted between animals and people.

Coronavirus is a RNA virus and it is believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults. They have been divided into six types of which the most famous was SARS virus that occurred in 2003.  They primarily infect the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract.

Chronology of COVID-19

31 December 2019: WHO China country office became aware of a pneumonia of unknown cause, which was detected in Wuhan, Hubei province, China.

5 January 2020: The WHO reported about a pneumonia of unknown aetiology in China and published its risk assessment and advice.

10 January 2020: WHO issued guidance tools for countries to check their ability to detect and respond to viruses?

12 January 2020: China completed the genome sequencing of Novel coronavirus and made it public.

Epidemiology

Humans of all age groups are affected by novel coronavirus, but the children, old age people with existing medical conditions for example diabetes, heart disease, CKD, and asthma are affected more. The transmission of coronavirus is done via droplet and airborne. The incubation period of coronavirus is from 2 to 14 days.

How long can the Corona virus survive on surfaces?

The survival of the coronavirus depends on varying conditions, for example, type of surface, temperature and humidity of the environment. It may persist on surfaces for a few hours to several days. It may survive in countries with hot and humid climates as well as cold and dry.

As per WHO report, 80% patients recover on their own; 15% become severely ill and may require hospitalization. The disease has a mortality rate of approximately11% .

Signs & Symptoms of Covid-19

Common signs of COVID 19 infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, and shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), kidney failure and even death.

Quarantine and Prevention

Standard recommendations for prevention of Covid-19 infection include regular hand washing, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs. One should avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing.

What should be done once a person gets infected with Covid-19?

If someone is found positive for novel coronavirus, he should be admitted in the isolation facility for proper care & treatment. This treatment cannot be provided in a normal health care facility. In general, the treatment includes a combination of antiretroviral drugs, Chloroquine, supportive therapy. In advance stage, ventilator support and organ support may be needed.

At the time of publication of this article, 20 March 2020, 11.00 PM, the world data related with Covid 19 are as follows:

  • Coronavirus cases 265,876
  • Total Death 11,180
  • Total recovered 90,603

Seven Essential Things You Should Do to Help Yourself During Quarantine for Coronavirus Infection (COVID 19)

For further information one can visit following websites:

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

https://www.mohfw.gov.in/

For live update of coronavirus infection, click at the link given below

https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

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