In earlier articles on radiography, you studied the effects of ionizing radiation on biological tissues. These effects can be divided into two types- Deterministic and Stochastic. Therefore, the radiation safety becomes of paramount importance white taking a radiograph.
In dentistry, several standard operating procedures have been devised to protect the patients as well as the radiation workers from ionizing radiation. These are the use of protective gears and following certain working habits.
While taking a radiograph a radiation worker as well as the patients should wear certain protective gears. These protective gears include use of Lead aprons and thyroid collars. Certain working habits include keeping a minimum distance of 2 meters from the source at the angle between 90 degree and 135 degrees.
The dental radiographic machines include certain features within themselves to minimize the ionizing radiation exposure. The radiographic machines include collimators, specific apertures, and aluminum filters etc.
Additionally, by controlling the potential difference (voltage) between the two poles- electron generator filament and the tungsten x ray generator of the machine, one can control the energy of the photons that will help in the prevention of generation of unwanted radiation harmful to the tissues. To know more about the design of the machines for safety one should read the related study materials.
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Image source: http://www.ifp.illinois.edu/~yuhuang/xray.html & https://www.slideshare.net/hmdali/hazards-protection