Extensive Facial Injury in an Unconscious patient: Case Discussion & Treatment Planning

This case presentation is about the emergency management of a traumatized patient. The questions related with this type of accidental cases may be asked in part one examination. I can guarantee you that at least once, you will be asked about the management of an accident case in viva voce session of ADC part 2 practical examination. You are supposed to prepare a treatment plan for this patient. 

If you wish, you can submit your treatment plan in the comment box. If need arises, you will get a positive response.


Case Description:

This male patient, in mid 40s was brought to the emergency room with the condition shown in the picture. He was unconscious with a GCS score of three and without any history. He was intubated to maintain airway in the emergency room. As a member of the emergency management team, you were called upon to perform your role. You were the first person to reach the emergency room. While other members are on their way, what will you do to manage this case? 


Extensive facial injury
Extensive facial injury of a male patient of mid 40s.


Do not copy or re-use this photograph.

Oral Manifestations of Leukaemia

The oral manifestation of leukaemia can be summarized as follows.

In acute leukaemia- localized or generalized gingival hyperplasia is generally observed. It mainly affects the interdental papillae and the marginal gingiva. 

Can clothe masks be a substitute for N95 masks?

Can clothe masks be a substitute for N95 masks?  

The researchers at the University of Chicago performed a study to check the purification ability of the cloth masks. They made masks by joining one layer of tightly woven cotton sheet1 and two layers of polyester-spandex chiffon2, which is a fabric commonly used in evening gowns. These masks filtered out 80% to 90% spray particles ranging from 10 nanometres to 6 micrometres in diameter at normal human respiratory flow rate and volume.  


Diabetes Mellitus

Article written by 

Dr. Neha Rai 

Diabetes Mellitus refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycaemia and are caused by a complex interaction of genetics and environmental factors. It is very different from Diabetes Insipidus. Diabetes Insipidus is a syndrome characterised by the production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine due to decreased secretion or action of Vasopressin, a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. 

The pathogenic process leading to hyperglycaemia is the basis for classification of diabetes mellitus into several types. Age or insulin dependence are no longer the criteria for differentiation. Type I and Type II are the two broad categories. In Type I DM there is destruction of pancreatic β cells and insulin deficiency resulting from autoimmune β cell destruction. Type II DM is characterised by variable degree of insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, excessive hepatic glucose production and abnormal fat metabolism. 

Bio-medical Waste Management

The biomedical waste management in India should be the burning and worrisome topic for the public as well as hospitals and health care service providers. Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2016 and further amendments in 2018 and 2019 have made enough provisions to handle all the biomedical wastes by any entity involved in anything related with health care provision. This includes, hospitals with only OPD facilities, hospitals with indoor facilities, blood donation camps, free health camps, medical services being provided in the field excluding the active war zones as well as the ships in the international water with Indian registration. 

The categorization of all biomedical wastes into four color categories namely yellow, red, white, and blue made the segregation easy and practical. It does not specifically say anything about the rules and regulations to be followed in reference to COVID-19. But when, the proper biomedical waste management protocols, standard precautions also known as universal precautions and the latest guidelines issued for the control of spread of Covid-19 by MoHFW are put together; we find ourselves equipped with enough tools to deal with all types of wastes and infections. 

We shall read more about the Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) rules 2016 and further amendments in 2018 & 2019 in further articles. 

Role of Zinc in Silver Amalgam

Role of Zinc in Silver Amalgam 

Zinc as such does not participate in the amalgamation process or in the setting reaction of silver amalgam alloy with mercury during and after the completion of the restoration process.